Messing around with EFI02. Mar '14

Introduction

UEFI is a new way to boot PC-s. Most UEFI enabled computers also allow so called Legacy mode which emulates PC BIOS behaviour. Windows 7 recommended UEFI and Windows 8 requires that computers come with UEFI firmware.

Making distinction between UEFI and traditional PC BIOS is not that easy because the manufacturers have seriously messed up presenting that information.

Partition table

First of all the partition table differs. Traditional PC-s have DOS partition tables:

localhost ~ $ fdisk /dev/sda

Command (m for help): p

Disk /dev/sda: 128.0 GB, 128035676160 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 15566 cylinders, total 250069680 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x000d5238

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sda1   *        2048    29296639    14647296   83  Linux
/dev/sda2        29296640   250068991   110386176   83  Linux

Command (m for help):

One of the requirements of EFI is that instead DOS partition table a GPT partition table is used. Attempting to edit GPT partition table with fdisk will result in a warning. Also all the disk space is allocated to protective partition:

localhost ~ $ fdisk /dev/sda

WARNING: GPT (GUID Partition Table) detected on '/dev/sda'! The util fdisk doesn't support GPT. Use GNU Parted.


Command (m for help): p

Disk /dev/sda: 256.1 GB, 256060514304 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 31130 cylinders, total 500118192 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sda1               1   500118191   250059095+  ee  GPT

Command (m for help):

To edit a GPT partition table you need gdisk:

localhost ~ $ gdisk /dev/sda
GPT fdisk (gdisk) version 0.8.5

Partition table scan:
  MBR: protective
  BSD: not present
  APM: not present
  GPT: present

Found valid GPT with protective MBR; using GPT.

Command (? for help): p
Disk /dev/sda: 500118192 sectors, 238.5 GiB
Logical sector size: 512 bytes
Disk identifier (GUID): 878637F3-2209-4C79-94EE-6C8DDB145D61
Partition table holds up to 128 entries
First usable sector is 34, last usable sector is 500118158
Partitions will be aligned on 2048-sector boundaries
Total free space is 2669 sectors (1.3 MiB)

Number  Start (sector)    End (sector)  Size       Code  Name
   1            2048          249855   121.0 MiB   EF00
   2          249856        29546495   14.0 GiB    0700
   3       441524224       470820863   14.0 GiB    0700
   4       470820864       500117503   14.0 GiB    0700
   5        29546496       441524223   196.4 GiB   0700

Command (? for help):

EFI partition

As can be seen from the partition listing above there is a partition with code EF00. This is a FAT32 formatted partition that contains the bootloaders of operating systems. It is usually mounted at /boot/efi:

localhost ~ $ mount | grep boot
/dev/sda1 on /boot/efi type vfat (rw,relatime,fmask=0022,dmask=0022,codepage=437,iocharset=utf8,shortname=mixed,errors=remount-ro)

If you would run it on a cleanly installed Debian Wheezy box it would look something like this:

localhost ~ $ find /boot/efi
/boot/efi
/boot/efi/EFI
/boot/efi/EFI/debian
/boot/efi/EFI/debian/grubx64.efi

Secure Boot feature of UEFI firmware checks the signature of those bootloader binaries and refuses to boot Debian because Debian's GRUB is not signed. On my Thinkpad T420 I could not locate Secure Boot toggle in the BIOS, appearently it's disabled by default.

EFI boot entries

You can list EFI entries using efibootmgr if you have booted your machine in EFI mode, that is - you have NOT enabled legacy mode in the BIOS:

lauri-t420 lauri $ efibootmgr
BootCurrent: 0019
Timeout: 0 seconds
BootOrder: 0019,000D,000B,000A,0008,0007,0006,000C,0013,0009,0011,0010,000F,000E,0012
Boot0000  Setup
Boot0001  Boot Menu
Boot0002  Diagnostic Splash Screen
Boot0003  Startup Interrupt Menu
Boot0004  ME Configuration Menu
Boot0005  Rescue and Recovery
Boot0006* USB CD
Boot0007* USB FDD
Boot0008* ATAPI CD0
Boot0009* ATA HDD2
Boot000A* ATA HDD0
Boot000B* ATA HDD1
Boot000C* USB HDD
Boot000D  PCI LAN
Boot000E* ATAPI CD1
Boot000F* ATAPI CD2
Boot0010* Other CD
Boot0011* ATA HDD3
Boot0012* ATA HDD4
Boot0013* Other HDD
Boot0014* IDER BOOT CDROM
Boot0015* IDER BOOT Floppy
Boot0016* ATA HDD
Boot0017* ATAPI CD:
Boot0018* PCI LAN
Boot0019* debian

This of course assumes that efivars module has been loaded and the kernel has detected the presence of UEFI:

modprobe efivars

If you have loaded the module but efibootmgr still fails to probe the EFI entries this means that your EFI firmware is not detected by the kernel:

Fatal:  Couldn't open either sysfs or procfs directories for accessing EFI variables.
Try 'modprobe efivars' as root.

Restoring EFI entries

On my Thinkpad T420 I happened to restore BIOS defaults which appearently also deletes all EFI entries (dafuq?!). Get a hold of a USB stick that boots with UEFI enabled BIOS, you may notice Debian Wheezy LiveCDs, Gentoo LiveCD and many others fail to boot if you have put the ISO on the usb key 1:1 with dd or cat. Sabayon Linux luckily has ISO which boots properly off USB memory stick. Note that I haven't used unetbootin to place ISO on a memory stick in a long time and I would not recommend it to anyone anyway.

I have to remind this again - efibootmgr complains that sysfs entries are missing if you attempt to boot in legacy mode.

Once Sabayon is up and running:

sudo mkdir /wheezy                      # Create mountpoint for my already installed Debian Wheezy
sudo mount /dev/sda2 /wheezy            # Mount root filesystem of Debian
sudo mount /dev/sda1 /wheezy/boot/efi   # Mount EFI partition
sudo mount --bind /dev /wheezy/dev
sudo mount --boot /dev/pts /wheezy/dev/pts
sudo mount --boot /sys /wheezy/sys
sudo mount --boot /proc /wheezy/proc
sudo chroot /wheezy apt-get install --reinstall grub-efi-amd64
sudo umount /wheezy/dev/pts
sudo umount /wheezy/dev/
sudo umount /wheezy/proc
sudo umount /wheezy/sys
sudo umount /wheezy/boot/efi
sudo umount /wheezy/
sudo reboot

This method also works if let's say you tried to install Ubuntu and it failed to detect that it is running on a UEFI enabled machine and the machine refuses to boot into GRUB.

Summary

Following flowchart summarises EFI debug:

Make sure BIOS BootPartition (ef02) is created2TB+ disk?2TB or greaterEFI boot?Use GUID Partition Table (GPT)Use DOS Partition Table (MBR)EFI enforced?Legacy boot availableLess than 2TBLegacy bootEFI bootMake sure EFI BootPartition (ef00) is createdMake sure EFI boot entries(efibootmgr) are createdMake sure PC/BIOS version ofGRUB2 is installedMake sure EFI version ofGRUB2 is installedYou want to boot using GRUB2Yep ;(Make sure EFI entries are notdeleted with BIOS reset
PC-BIOS GRUB Debian EFI